Research Methodology-II

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Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

To understand the concept of measurement in empirical systems & its validity and reliability . To use statistical techniques for analysis of research data. To realize the applications of Business research.To understand the types, tools and methods of research and develop the ability to analyze data gathered to draw precise and relevant conclusions and write it in the form of a Research report.

Unit I: 

Concept of Permutation and Combinations
Probability- Basic Concepts, Importance of Concept of Probability, Theorem of
Probability (Additional Theorem and Multiplication Theorem), Conditional
Probability, Bayes’ Theorem, Mathematical Expectation
Probability Distribution: Binomial, Poisson’s and Normal.

Unit II: 

Sampling- Meaning of census and sample. Characterstics of a good sample, Need for sample, Types of samples based on Probability and Non-Probability sampling.
Probability Sampling- Idea of Simple Random Sampling, Stratified and Cluster sampling
Non- Probability Sampling- Purposive and Quota sampling.
Sampling Distribution and Standard Error. Element of Testing a Statistical Hypothesis- Formulation of the problem, Types of Errors. Level of Significance, Test of Significance for Large and Small samples.

Unit III: 

Chi-square test- Chi-square test for population variance. Chi-Square Test ( as goodness of fit, independence of attributes using 2x2 and rxc contingency tables).

Analysis of Variance- Application of F-test. One-way and Two-way classification

Unit IV: 

Interpolation and Extrapolation: Meaning and Importance, Assumptions. Graphics Methods of Curve Fitting, Algebraic, Binomial, Langrage, Newton Method for advancing Difference, Newton Method of Divided Difference.

Unit V: 

Time Series Analysis: Introduction, Utility of Time Series Analysis, Components of Time Series Analysis, Measurement of Trend:
Freehand or Graphic Method, Method of Semi Averages, Methods of Moving Averages, Method of Least Square, Shifting the Trend Origin,
 Measurement of Seasonal Variations:
Method of Simple Average, Ratio to Trend, Ratio to Moving Average Method, Link Relative Method

Research Report Writing:
Format of Research Report, Presentation, Footnote- Endnote, Bibliography, References.

Essential Readings: 

1.    Simpson and Kafka: Basic Statistics, Oxford and IBH Publishers.
2.    Badarkar, P.L. and Wilkinson T.S. (2000), Methodology and Techniques of Social Research, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai
3   Business Statistics-Gupta, Goyal, Jain, Biyani, Gupta( Ajmera Book Company)
4. Kothari , C.R.( Second Edition), Research Methodology- Methods and Techniques, Wishwa Publication, New Delhi.
5. Spiegel, Schiller and Srinivasan- Theory and Problems of Probability and Statistics-Tata Mc Graw Hill


1.    Goon, Gupta and Das: Fundamentals of Statistics, Vol. I and II.
2.    Snedecor and Cochran, Statistical Methods, Oxford and IBH Publishers.
3.    Shukla,M.C. and Gulshan S.S., Statistics Theory and Practice, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi.
4.    Gupta, S.P., Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi.
5.    Gupta, S.C. and Kapoor V.K., Fundamental of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi

Note- The candidate shall be permitted to use battery operated pocket calculator that should not have more than 12 digits, 6 functions and 2 memories and should be noiseless and cordless

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